>> Systems of cooling, heating, ventilation and air conditioning
>> General information
System of cooling of the engine
All models of cars considered in the real Management are equipped with system of cooling of the engine working at superfluous pressure with thermostatic management of circulation of working liquid. The water pump is fixed on the block of the engine and provides pumping of cooling liquid through an okhladitelny path of the last.
The scheme of an arrangement of the main components of system of cooling (on an example of diesel models)
The stream of liquid washes regions of an arrangement of each of cylinders in the block then goes to a back part of the engine; laid in molding of the block and a head of cylinders okhladitelny channels provide intensive heat removal from inlet and final ports, areas of installation of candles of an ignition/incandescence and directing plugs of final valves; on diesel models cooling liquid is used also for branch of superfluous heat from a turbokompressor.
The scheme of a big contour of circulation of cooling liquid (on an example of diesel models)
From the moment of engine start the system of cooling passes through three modes of functioning: on первомэтапе while the temperature of cooling liquid did not rise above a certain value, it circulates on a small circle from which working contour the radiator is excluded. In process of further warming up of the engine the tarelchaty valve included in a path of system of the voskozapolnenny thermostat opens and the radiator is connected to a contour of circulation. Further, on reaching temperature of cooling liquid of the next control value, the vyazkostny coupling of a drive of the fan of system of the cooling, forced which the additional air stream considerably increases efficiency of functioning of the heat exchanger of a radiator works.
In addition the design of the vyazkostny coupling provides fan shutdown at excess by turns of the engine of some certain value when the adequate heat-conducting path is reached at the expense of increase of intensity of a running stream of air.
The system of cooling has a tight design and is densely closed by a cover of the radiator, capable to maintain a certain superfluous pressure that provides increase of a boiling point of cooling liquid and, - respectively, - efficiency of a heat-conducting path through a radiator. At excess by internal pressure in system of some certain value (see. Specifications of the Head of System of cooling, heating, ventilation and air conditioning), the double-thread pressure head and vacuum valve built in in a cover that leads to an overflowing of excess of cooling liquid on a connecting (perelivny) tube in a broad tank, - leaving together with liquid air and pairs of heat-carrier opens then are deduced from a tank at the expense of the organization of ventilation of the last. In process of cooling of system and pressure lowering in it below atmospheric forced-out excess of liquid automatically comes back from a tank to a radiator.
On models with automatic transmission the radiator is equipped with the additional tank providing cooling of ATF.
Filling of cooling liquid in system is made through a radiator mouth (see. Head Current leaving and service). Correction of level of liquid can be made through a mouth of a broad tank which at the same time acts also as a receiver accumulating in forced out from a radiator excess of liquid.
In view of the listed features of a design, such system of cooling received the name closed as in it any functional losses of the heat-carrier are excluded.
Systems of heating and salon ventilation
The system of heating consists from located in a forward part of salon of the fan, the heat exchanger, and also the sleeves of distribution of an air stream equipped with target deflectors. Hot cooling liquid passes through the heat exchanger. Principles of management (and conditioning) are in detail stated by functioning of systems of heating/ventilation regarding the Device of ensuring comfort of Head Governing bodies and operation receptions.
Air central air
See. Section of System of ventilation, heating and air conditioning.