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Power supply systems, managements of engine/decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases and production of the fulfilled gases
   Security measures and the general rules accepted at service of components of fuel paths of internal combustion engines
   Power supply system of petrol engines
   Power supply system of diesel engines
   Control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
      General information
      ESM - check of serviceability of a condition and replacement
      System of onboard self-diagnostics (OBD) - the general information
      System of self-diagnostics of diesel models
      Oscillograph application for supervision of performance data of a control system
      Check of serviceability of functioning of components of control systems of engine/decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
   System of production of the fulfilled gases
Systems of electric equipment of the engine
Five-step manual box of gear shifting
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Kia Sportage>> Power supply systems, managements of engine/decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases and production of the fulfilled gases>> Control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases

Control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases

General information

Petrol models

General information

For the purpose of decrease in level of issue in the atmosphere of the toxic components getting to composition of fulfilled gases of the engine as a result of evaporation and incompleteness of combustion of fuel, and also for maintenance of efficiency of return of the engine and decrease in fuel consumption, modern cars are equipped are equipped with a number of special systems which can be united under the general name of a control system of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases.

The scheme of functioning of a control system of the engine on petrol models (on an example of the models equipped with the forward catalytic converter)

1 — Ø/m the valve of a purge of an adsorber
2 — the Coal adsorber
3 — To ECM
4 — the throttle Case
5 — the Regulator of pressure of fuel
6 — the Fuel highway
7 — Fuel injectors
8 — the PCV Valve
9 — ignition Coils
10 — the CMP Sensor
11 — Dokatalitichesky warmed up a lambda probe
12 — the Control valve
13 — the Fuel filter
14 — the Separator of fuel evaporations
15 — the Air purifier

16 — the Air route
17 — the MAF Sensor
18 — the IAC Valve
19 — TPS
20 — the ECT Sensor
21 — the Sensor of a detonation (KS)
22 — the CKP Sensor
23 — WU-TWC
24 — Post-catalytic warmed up a lambda probe
25 — the Fuel pump
26 — Toplivozabornik
27 — TWC
28 — Post-catalytic warmed up a lambda probe
29 — the Sensor of accelerations of the chassis (CAS)

The complete set of systems depends on brand, model, year of release and the region, on whose market the car is delivered. Information on type and structure of systems is provided on the information label of VECI fixed under a cowl.

The structure of information label of VECI includes also the scheme of laying of vacuum hoses (petrol models)

The scheme of an arrangement of components of control systems of engine/decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases on petrol models with two catalytic converters

1 — the Sensor of accelerations of the chassis (CAS)
2 — Ø/m the valve of a purge of an adsorber of EVAP
3 — the Sensor of provision of butterfly valves (TPS)
4 — Э / the motor of system of stabilization of turns of idling (IAC)
5 — the Sensor of provision of a camshaft (CMP)
6 — the Sensor of provision of a cranked shaft (CKP)
7 — the Sensor of measurement of weight of air (MAF)
8 — the Diagnostic DLC socket
9 — the Sensor of temperature of soaked-up air (IAT)
10 — the Sensor of a detonation (KS)
11 — the Sensor of temperature of cooling liquid of the engine (ECT)

12 — the Fuel highway with injectors
13 — the Coal adsorber
14 — the Main assembly block of safety locks/relay
15 — Dokatalitichesky a lambda probe
16 — the Forward three-functional catalytic converter (TWC)
17 — Post-catalytic a lambda probe
18 — Back TWC
19 — the Module of management of AT (TCM), - only models with AT
20 — the Module of engine management (ECM)
21 — the Control lamp of refusals (MIL/check the engine)
22 — the Diagnostic DLC socket of OBD II system

The system of consecutive injection of fuel (SFI) applied on considered models gets under classification multipoint, with a dosage on the duration of an operating impulse defined on the basis of information, weight of air (MAF) delivered by the termoanemometrichesky sensor. Systems of supply of air and fuel function together with the control system of engine/decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases including in the structure a set of information sensors, and the actuation mechanisms which are continuously exchanging data with the electronic module of management (ECM), coordinating operation of the engine. Analyzing information delivered by sensors, ECM calculates optimum for a present situation of value of a corner of an advancing of ignition and duration of an operating impulse of opening of injectors. On the models considered in the real Management equipped with the DOHC engine efficiency of dispersion of injected fuel raises at the expense of pumping of the air submitted to injectors on specially organized branch from the inlet pipeline. The Melkodispersnost of dispersion not only increases efficiency of combustion of gas mixture, but also allows to lower level of the maintenance of toxic components in combustion products.

The base structure of an air and fuel mix is formed by the management module on the basis of the data arriving from the MAF sensor, on which ECM defines amount of air soaked up in the engine. More exact dosage is carried out taking into account information, about temperature of cooling liquid (ECT sensor), speeds of movement of the car (VSS), the content of oxygen in the fulfilled gases (lambda probe) and the moments of an exit of the piston of the first cylinder in the provision VMT of the end of a step of compression (the sensor of provision of a camshaft - CMP).

Continuously analyzing information arriving from sensors, ECM is capable to react adequately to the smallest changes of operating conditions of the engine, in due time making the corresponding corrections of the moments and duration of injection of fuel in combustion chambers, providing with that maintenance of an optimum ratio of such working parameters of the engine, as efficiency of its return and toxicity of an exhaust.

The main component released by the engine into the atmosphere the fulfilled gases is nitrogen (N2), however at an exhaust of any internal combustion engine inevitably there is also carbon monooxide (WITH), a carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), oxygen (О2), nitrogen (NOH) oxides, hydrogen (Н2), and also not burned down hydrocarbons (NANOSECOND). Rub from listed above components, namely WITH, NOH and NANOSECOND, are among the substances which are actively polluting environment, and in the atmosphere subsystems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases which number treat are urged to supervise their issue:

  • System of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP);
  • System of operated ventilation of a case (PCV);
  • Catalytic converter (and);
  • The conductor of a jellied mouth of a fuel tank (under the refueling gun of columns of distribution of unleaded gasoline);
  • System of onboard self-diagnostics (OBD).

In the sections provided below the general descriptions of principles of functioning of each of systems are given, and also procedures of diagnostic checks and regenerative repair (if that is obviously possible) the separate components which performance lies within qualification of the average amateur mechanic are stated

Before coming to conclusion about refusal any of subsystems of decrease in toxicity, attentively check serviceability of functioning of power supply systems and ignition (see. Part Power supply system of petrol engines of the present chapter and Head of System of electric equipment of the engine). Diagnostics of systems of decrease in toxicity some of knots demands use of the special, difficult equipment in application and a certain qualification of the performer, and therefore, it will be reasonable to charge its performance to specialists of car-care center. Told does not mean above that service and repair of components of systems of decrease in toxicity in practice are represented exigeant. It is necessary to remember that one of the most widespread reasons of the majority of refusals is elementary violation of quality of connections of vacuum or electric lines, and therefore, first of all always it is necessary to check a condition of the corresponding electric and shtutserny sockets. The owner of the car can independently and it is rather easy to make a number of checks, and also, to execute in house conditions a set of procedures of routine maintenance of the majority of components of considered subsystems, using thus a usual set of the adjusting and metalwork tool.

Do not forget about additional federal guarantee certificates under which components of systems of decrease in toxicity and engine management get, - before starting performance of any procedures on repair of knots and details of data of systems, consult about conditions of observance of these obligations in representation office of the KIA company.

Try to observe everything the precautionary measures stipulated in below-mentioned sections at performance of service of electronic components of considered systems. It is necessary to notice that the illustrative material can correspond not always in accuracy to real placement of components on the car. Such discrepancies are connected with continuously occurring process of updating within a standard design of each model.

Module of management (ECM)

ECM represents the electronic module on the basis of the microprocessor which on the basis of the analysis of signals arriving from various information sensors exercises administration of functioning of systems of injection, ignitions and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases.

Into number of carried-out ECM of tasks enter:

  • Management in parameters of injection of fuel;
  • In ignition management in parameters;
  • Management of functioning of system of stabilization of turns of idling (IAC);
  • Management of EVAP system functioning;
  • Management of functioning of the fuel pump;
  • Self-diagnostics;
  • Activation of emergency parameters of the failed subsystems.

When ECM develops target signals of the fixed level, without the signals arriving from a lambda probe (ов), say that the control system functions in a mode of «an open contour», i.e., without feedback. If the module starts to process given out by the oxygen sensor (ами) information, the mode becomes "closed" that allows ECM to correct injection and ignition parameters taking into account the current operational characteristics of the engine (turns, loading, temperature, and so forth). 

In memory of the module emergency values (values by default) the main working parameters of all subsystems of management are put. These parameters are activated in case of identification of refusal of the corresponding subsystem, providing adequacy of functioning of the engine (with inevitable loss of efficiency of return).

Refusal of any subject to monitoring from the block of self-diagnostics of a component is fixed in memory of the module in the form of the corresponding code (DTC) which reading can be made by means of the special scanner (see. The section System of onboard self-diagnostics (OBD) - the general information).

Supply of fuel and configuration of an air and fuel mix

General information

See. Section Power supply system of petrol engines.

Duration of injection

During engine warming up at start duration of opening of injectors is defined by ECM according to change of temperature of cooling liquid. After the engine will get warm to normal working temperature, the following scheme of determination of duration of injection joins: «Base value x Adjustment parameters + Compensatory variable». Thus base value of duration of opening of an injector is defined by two major factors: amount of air submitted to the engine (on MAF sensor signals) and the current frequency of rotation of the engine (on CKP sensor signals). Adjustment parameters are considered. The compensatory variable is urged to compensate temporary delays of operation of the injectors, the tension of the storage battery connected with variations.

The organization listed below functions allows to correct in due time base value of duration of opening of injectors for the purpose of maintenance of optimum structure of an air and fuel mix at any parameters of functioning of the engine.

  • Correction of structure of an air and fuel mix on signals dokatalitichesky a lambda probe. On as appropriate equipped models information issued to a dokatalitichesky lambda probe on level of the content of oxygen in the fulfilled gases allows ECM to correct in due time a dosage of supply of fuel for the purpose of prevention of appreciable deviations of composition of gas mixture from stekhiometrichesky value;
  • Starting correction of structure of a mix. At the moment of a provorachivaniye of a cranked shaft at engine start duration of opening of injectors compulsorily increases for the purpose of maintenance of stability of turns;
  • Post-starting adjustment. This adjustment allows to stabilize engine turns during the moment directly after implementation of its start (information on temperature of the cooling liquid, delivered by the ECT sensor is considered also);
  • Correction of structure of a mix during engine warming up. This adjustment is made according to change of temperature of cooling liquid (the temperature is lower, the duration of injection there is more) and carried out on the basis of the data issued by the ECT sensor, and ECM for stabilization of turns of the engine is used during its warming up;
  • Correction of structure of a mix at complete opening of a butterfly valve. At complete opening of a butterfly valve duration of time of opening of injectors increases according to information arriving from TPS;
  • Correction of structure of a mix during acceleration. This adjustment is urged to compensate a temporary delay of definition of amount of soaked-up air for the purpose of increase of sensitivity of the engine to manipulations with a gas pedal during acceleration.

The scheme of the organization of monitoring of structure of an air and fuel mix on petrol models

1 — the Forward catalytic converter
2 — the Fulfilled gases
3 — Dokatalitichesky a lambda probe
4 — the Fuel injector
5 — the combustion Chamber
6 — ECM
And — the Signal of increase in duration of opening of an injector

In — the Signal of reduction of duration of opening of an injector
With — High level of the content of oxygen in the fulfilled gases
D — Low level of the content of oxygen in the fulfilled gases
Е — the Signal of the regrown poor mix
F — the Signal of the reenriched mix

On considered models correction of structure of an air and fuel mix on signals dokatalitichesky the lambda probe is organized intellectually. The essence of the told is concluded in the following: during management of structure of a mix, ECM on the basis of the analysis of information arriving from the oxygen sensor calculates correcting variable which then it is added to put in memory of the processor to base value of duration of time of opening of injectors (corresponding to the current turns of the engine), thus sensitivity and reactance of system of subjects is lower, than the size of a demanded temporary additive is more appreciable. The intellectual organization of process allows to bypass this situation at the expense of continuous correction of base value by addition to it the last correcting additive and preservation of total value in random access memory of the processor, thus, the size of the next adjustment is essentially reduced, and efficiency of functioning of system increases.

Ignition of gas mixture

ECM continuously traces the current working state of the engine on the signals arriving from sensors of temperatures of cooling liquid and soaked-up air, the provision of the cranked shaft and so forth. On the basis of the analysis of received information of ECM selects optimum (from put in memory of the processor) the ignition moment in which gives out on the corresponding bobbin module a signal of interruption of primary contour.

At management of ignition intellectual function (function of fast recognition) in which ECM written down in memory data are compared to information arriving from information sensors / датчиков-выключателей also is used. So, at a choice of the moment of ignition for any operating conditions of the engine, ECM processes information on target capacity of the power unit, fuel consumption, composition of the fulfilled gases and so forth. During engine start fluctuations of its turns in view of what the module of management is not capable to supervise adequately a corner of an advancing of ignition therefore for this period the corner compulsorily is exposed on some base value on a special signal of the CKP sensor always take place.

After implementation of start of the ECM engine on signals of the same CKP sensor traces the current turns of the engine and on the basis of the analysis of received information exposes a corner of an advancing and porosity of an impulse of ignition corresponding to the current requirements of the engine.

Management of idling turns

ECM provides stability of turns of idling of the engine by activation of the lamellar electromagnetic IAC valve operating a perepuskaniye of additional air bypassing the case of a throttle. As initial information of ECM uses the data delivered by sensors of provision of a cranked shaft (CKP), temperatures of cooling liquid (ECT), a flowmeter (MAF sensor), and also the sensor switch of activation of the conditioner of air that allows to carry out complete control of engine turns at any current loading.

As the operating element of the IAC valve the electromagnet reacting to level of porosity of the operating periodic signal is used. Than the factor of filling of the signal which is given out by the module of management on an electromagnet is higher, with that big extent of opening of a rotary zaslonka is provided by the last. The consumption of additional air is directly proportional to extent of opening of a zaslonka and makes direct impact on frequency of rotation of the engine.

The main objectives of the device is compensation of increase of load of the engine at activation To/in, the steering pump and other power-intensive consumers of the electric power, and also increase of turns of idling of the engine in an initial stage of its warming up, ensuring buffer effect at fast closing of a butterfly valve, plus control of stability of turns of the engine idling.

Management of functioning of the fuel pump

Being guided by information delivered by the sensor of provision of a camshaft (CMP), ECM provides management of functioning of the fuel pump by activation/deactivation of its relay. For the purpose of increase of level of safety the fuel pump is automatically blocked at spontaneous остановах the engine at the included ignition. The principle of the organization of management is formulated in the table

Principle of the organization of management of gasoline pump functioning

Ignition is included

Relay of the fuel pump

Fuel pump

A certain period of time it is direct after ignition inclusion R Functions
At an engine provorachivaniye starter R Functions
At operation of the engine R Functions
At stop the engine Vykl Does not function

Control system of ignition

The design and principle of functioning of system of ignition of the petrol engine are in detail described in the Head of System of electric equipment of the engine.

System of ventilation of a case (PCV)

Concentration of hydrocarbons (NANOSECOND) in a case of the engine can exceed many times over the size registered in the analysis of composition of fulfilled gases.

The system of operated ventilation of a case (PCV) provides decrease in issue in the atmosphere of hydrocarbonic connections at the expense of a conclusion of karterny gases from the block of cylinders and their burning in the course of normal functioning of the engine.

Principle of functioning of system of ventilation of a case (PCV) of the petrol engine

The PCV valve, tightly closed cover of a jellied mouth of impellent oil, inlet air path and set of connecting vacuum hoses belong to number of the main components of system.

At incomplete opening of the butterfly valve, karterny gases containing in the engine, on a special hose via the PCV valve are taken away in the inlet pipeline at the expense of relevancy of depth of depression created in it. At the same time in an engine case on connected to a cover of a head of cylinders to a hose fresh air is started.

At completely open zaslonka when depth in the inlet pipeline is not so great, the part of karterny gases on a separate hose is forwarded to an inlet air path and further - in the throttle case.

Over time walls of the case of a throttle start to become covered by tarry deposits, in particular around an arrangement a zaslonok. In view of told, it is necessary to make throttle cleaning from time to time.

Three-functional catalytic converter (TWC)

Depending on a complete set the structure of system of production of the fulfilled gases can include one (the European models), or two (the American models) three-functional the catalytic converter.

The catalytic converter (also) is a component of system of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases, is included in structure of system of release and serves for decrease in issue in the atmosphere of toxic components. There are two types of catalytic converters. The ordinary oxidizing converter allows to lower the content in the fulfilled gases of hydrocarbons (NANOSECOND) and carbon monooxide (WITH). The three-functional catalytic converter (TWC) in addition allows to reduce issue of oxides of nitrogen (NOH). On petrol models considered in the real Management three-functional catalytic converters are used.

Base components of any TWC are platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh) and палладиум (Pd) which mix is put with a thin layer on a having form of an oval a cellular design, or a porous ceramic basis.

In order to avoid an irreversible exit of the catalyst out of operation for filling of as appropriate equipped cars it is necessary to use exclusively unleaded fuel!

Maximum efficiency of functioning of the catalytic converter is reached at a certain concentration in the fulfilled gases of toxic components. The demanded balance is reached at the expense of control of structure of an air and fuel mix which the control system tries to support constantly near the value equal to stekhiometrichesky number.

Control system of structure of an air and fuel mix

ECM, on the basis of the signals, continuously arriving dokatalitichesky the lambda probe (ов), makes the corresponding corrections of base value of duration of opening of injectors for the purpose of maintenance of structure of an air and fuel mix near stekhiometrichesky value (14.7 parts of air on 1 part of fuel), providing optimum conditions for functioning of the three-functional catalytic converter (TWC).

Various base values of time of opening of injectors are provided for various turns of the engine, the current loadings and amount of soaked-up air.

In system the intellectual correction of the current base values allowing considerably to increase reactance of responses to occurring changes is also provided.

System of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP)

General information

The EVAP system accumulates accumulating in a fuel path during parking of the car of evaporation in special, with the filled absorbent carbon an adsorber and provides a conclusion them to the inlet highway for burning in the course of normal functioning of the engine, preventing thereby atmosphere pollution by petrol pairs. Improvement of system is made continuously in process of toughening of requirements shown to protection of environment.

Scheme of functioning of system of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP) of the petrol engine

1 — the throttle Case
2 — Ø/m the valve of a purge of an adsorber
3 — the Coal adsorber
4 — the Fuel injector
5 — the PCV Valve

6 — the CMP Sensor
7 — the ECT Sensor
8 — the Fuel pump
9 — the Control valve
10 — the Separator of fuel evaporations

The structure of system includes a separator of fuel evaporations, the double-thread control valve, a coal adsorber, the electromagnetic valve of management of an adsorber purge, connecting lines and ECM.

Management of functioning of the valve of a purge of an adsorber carries out ECM, choosing the most optimum for a purge the moment, proceeding from working parameters of the engine, and also information delivered by sensors of temperature and fuel consumption.

The electromagnetic valve of management is switched on by pressure in the isparitelny line of a fuel tank and serves for pressure/depression control in a tank on the basis of the signals which are given out on ECM by the sensor established in a tank of pressure.

Cover of a jellied mouth of a fuel tank

In normal conditions the cover closes a mouth absolutely tightly at the expense of the rubber consolidation pressed on all perimeter of a mouth, and also thanks to that the valve (And) remains densely pressed by a spring to the saddle.

1 — the Sealant
2 — the Spring
3 — the Valve

Built in a cover of a jellied mouth the safety valve serves for education prevention in a tank of excessively deep depression owing to violation of passableness of isparitelny lines.

At increase of depth of depression in a tank atmospheric pressure wrings out a spring down that leads to valve opening. As a result pressure is leveled because in a tank external air gets.

Coal adsorber

The coal adsorber is filled with absorbent carbon, serves for temporary accumulation of fuel evaporations and is blown on ECM signal when opening the special electromagnetic valve. From an adsorber fuel evaporations arrive in the inlet pipeline then are burned in the course of normal functioning of the engine.

Electromagnetic valve of management of a purge of a coal adsorber

The valve is switched on in the isparitelny line connecting an adsorber to the inlet pipeline and located from the bottom party of the pipeline. Management of a purge carries out ECM, being guided by data on the current operational parameters (temperature of cooling liquid, engine turns, speed of movement, etc.). The purge is made at the started engine, except for certain conditions, such, for example, as work on single turns.

Double-thread valve

The double-thread valve is switched on in the isparitelny line connecting a coal adsorber to a fuel tank. When pressure in a tank exceeds some established value developed by a klapanny spring effort is overcome and the valve opens, thus being in a tank under the pressure of evaporation are taken away in an adsorber where accumulate in a filler time.

At pressure decrease the valve is closed, however the air getting into system through entrance port of an adsorber, continues to get into a tank through a small opening in a valve end face, preventing creation of excessive depression.

Vacuum path

The scheme of laying of vacuum lines is provided in the right section of information label of VECI.

Diesel models

General information

The scheme of the organization of a power supply system of the diesel engine with electronic control by injection

1 — the Storage battery
2 — the Sensor of turns of TNVD (Np)
3 — the Compensatory resistor
4 — ECM
5 — the Sensor of provision of a pedal of gas
6 — the Sensor of pressure of pressurization
7 — the Sensor of air temperature of pressurization (TA)
8 — Turbokompressor
9 — the Regulator of the moments of injection
10 — the Valve of management of distribution of the moments of injection (TCV)

11 — the Sensor of position of the distributive piston
12 — the Locking valve (FCV)
13 — the Sensor of position of the TNVD distributive coupling (CSP)
14 — Intercooler
15 — the Sensor of air temperature of pressurization (TA)
16 — the Electromagnetic EGR valve
17 — the EGR Sensor
18 — the Operating EGR valve
19 — the Vacuum pump

The scheme of placement of components of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases of the diesel engine in an impellent compartment

1 — Ø/m the EGR valve
2 — the Operating EGR valve
3 — the EGR Sensor
4 — Sapun PCV
5 — the Assembly block of safety locks

6 — the Sensor of provision of a pedal of gas
7 — the Sensor of temperature of soaked-up air
8 — the Sensor of pressure of air of pressurization
9 — ECM

Engine management, also as well as on petrol models carries out the electronic module (ECM) which is carrying out control of a dosage and ignition of submitted to chambers of combustion of gas mixture on the basis of signals, arriving from various information sensors / датчиков-выключателей (VMT, ECT, pressure of pressurization, turns of TNVD of [Np], PNP [models with AT], activation To/in, the provision of a pedal of gas and so forth). Installation of phases of a gazoraspredeleniye is carried out by the management module through electronic TNVD of distributive type.

In case of identification of refusals of any components of ECM system fixes in memory of the processor the corresponding digital codes (DTC) which reading can be made by means of the special scanner connected to located in the left the back corner of an impellent compartment to the diagnostic socket (DLC).

The description of principles of formation of an air and fuel mix is provided in the Section the Power supply system of diesel engines.

The system of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases consists of two subsystems: ventilation of a case (PCV), a podmeshivaniye of the fulfilled gases (EGR), plus to that in system of release is included the oxidizing catalytic converter, urged to reduce emission issue in the atmosphere of oxides of nitrogen (NOH), carbon monooxide (WITH) and hydrocarbons (NANOSECOND).

Power supply system

Fuel dispensing

Main requirements

For achievement of optimum structure of a working mix the fuel pump of a high pressure (TNVD) should provide supply of fuel in the engine under the pressure of 350 ÷ 2000 atm, - according to features of process of combustion of diesel fuel - with the maximum accuracy of dispensing of cycles of injection.

The beginning of injection should be precisely established on time within ± 1 ° turn of a cranked shaft for the purpose of providing an optimum ratio between such operational parameters of the engine, as fuel consumption, level of a noise background and emission of toxic components.

Regulation of the moment of the beginning of injection is carried out in order that it was possible to operate the beginning of process of combustion and to compensate duration of distribution of waves of compression in топливопроводах.

Systems of electronic control by functioning of diesel engines possess integrated functions of regulation of injection, providing change of supply of fuel by the pump depending on frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft, loading and working temperature of the engine.

For management of loading and frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft change of cyclic supply of fuel is used only; amount of air on an admission not дросселируется. As the diesel engine on small loadings at increase in cyclic supply of fuel is capable to increase frequency of rotation to the values considerably exceeding admissible sizes, it is important to have the device limiting this increase. Besides, there should be also a regulator of turns in an idling mode.

Injection process

By consideration of process of injection in diesel engines it is impossible to consider fuel incompressible, - all accompanying processes should be considered as dynamic, acoustic principles reflecting mainly.

The camshaft of TNVD given from a cranked shaft of the engine moves plunzher of pump assembly, providing supply of fuel with creation of a high pressure in топливопроводах.

When at pressure increase the delivery valve opens, the wave of consolidation extends in the direction of the corresponding nozzle with speed of a sound (about 1400 m/s). On reaching demanded pressure the locking needle of a working nozzle of a nozzle overcomes effort of a spring, opening section through passage, and fuel moves through raspylitelny openings in the chamber of combustion of the engine. Process of injection comes to an end with opening of a drain opening in a sleeve of a plunzher. Pressure in a nadplunzherny cavity decreases that leads to closing of the delivery valve and, as a result, pressure decrease in топливопроводе before the repartitions chosen from the following conditions:

  • The locking needle of a nozzle should be closed instantly, excepting leakage of fuel;
  • The oscillatory phenomena in топливопроводах should not cause repeated opening of a nozzle and become the reason of cavitational destructions.

System of injection of fuel

The system of injection is intended for exact dispensing of fuel in any modes of functioning of the engine.

Principle of management of number of injection of fuel (Q)

The step of low pressure includes a fuel tank, the fuel filter, the pump of pumping, perepuskny the valve and топливопроводы.

TNVD belongs to a step of a high pressure with the delivery valve creating pressure necessary for injection), топливопроводы a high pressure and a nozzle. The system of electronic control of the engine also contains the control valve (more often electromagnetic, in the long term – piezoelectric).

In considered models TNVD of distributive type (VE) with the electronic control, providing fuel distribution under a high pressure to nozzles of cylinders of the engine in defined ECM time moments is used.

Management of amount of injected fuel at start and an entrance of warming up of the engine

During start of the ECM engine provides management of number of combustion of fuel injected into chambers, being guided by indications of the sensor of temperature of cooling liquid (ECT).

Control of the maximum quantity of injected fuel

The maximum quantity of fuel injected into the engine is defined by the management module on the basis of the analysis of information arriving from CKP sensors (turns of a cranked shaft) and pressure of pressurization (amount of submitted air).

Management of amount of injected fuel during movement

The module of management defines this parameter being based on the data arriving from CKP sensors and the provision of a pedal of gas.

Control of turns of idling

ECM aspires to support stability of turns of idling by control of vibrating loadings (the detonation sensor), engine turns (CKP sensor) and the current loading (the sensor of provision of a pedal of gas).

Correction of number of injection depending on fuel temperature

Being based on indications of the sensor of temperature of fuel, ECM carries out correction of number of its injection.

Automatic suppression of deviations (ADC) of turns

The module of management traces frequency of injection of fuel in each of combustion chambers, suppressing the vibrations connected with violation of stability of turns of the engine, defined by deviation of this parameter.

Damping of sharp throws of number of the injection, the turns of the engine connected with change

This function allows to reduce mechanical vibrations and to minimize emission of a black smoke from release system at fast changes of turns of the engine.

Compensation of change of height of situation above sea level

ECM provides management of quantity and the injection moment depending on changes of atmospheric pressure.

Management of number of injection depending on temperature of soaked-up air

Being based on the analysis of information on temperature of air soaked up in the engine, ECM carries out correction of quantity and the moment of combustion of fuel injected into chambers.

Management of the injection moments

ECM provides management of the moments of injection of fuel in chambers of combustion both during engine start, and during movement), proceeding from data from temperature of cooling liquid (ECT sensor), frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft (CKP sensor) and the current loading (the sensor of provision of a pedal of gas). Feedback is carried out via the sensor of position of the TNVD distributive piston (TPS).

Principle of the organization of automatic suppression of deviations (ADC)

Principle of management moments of injection (T)

System of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases

The system of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases of the diesel engine consists of three subsystems: system of operated ventilation of a case (PCV), system of a podmeshivaniye of the fulfilled gases (EGR) and the oxidizing catalytic converter.

System of ventilation of a case (PCV)

The scheme of the organization of operated ventilation of a case (PCV) of the diesel engine

System of a retsirkulyatsiya of the fulfilled gases

On considered models the scheme of an external retsirkulyatsiya when some controllable amount of the fulfilled gases is taken away from system of release is organized and is mixed with chambers of combustion of the engine.

The scheme of the organization of system of a retsirkulyatsiya of the fulfilled gases (EGR) of the diesel engine

As a result of such podmeshivaniye of the fulfilled gases in a working mix the temperature of combustion of the last decreases a little that leads to concentration reduction in an exhaust of oxides of nitrogen (NOH).

Management of a retsirkulyatsiya carries out ECM by means of two valves (the managing director electromagnetic and executive) and one information sensor.

Oxidizing catalytic converter

The system of production of the fulfilled gases of diesel models turns on the catalytic converter of the oxidizing type providing decrease in concentration of emission in the atmosphere of toxic products of combustion of fuel at the expense of their reburning (oxidation) at contact to the metallized covering of the developed surface of a working element.

1 — the Case
2 — the Stream of the fulfilled gases from the engine
3 — the Inlet branch pipe
4 — To the exhaust silencer
5 — the Working element with cellular structure