>> Power supply systems, managements of engine/decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases and production of the fulfilled gases
>> Power supply system of petrol engines
Power supply system of petrol engines
All models considered in the real Management are equipped with electronic system of the distributed injection of fuel (SFI). At the expense of use in a control system of the latest technological solutions of SFI provides optimization of configuration of an air and fuel mix under any service conditions of the engine.
Fuel is in a power supply system under constant pressure and through injectors is injected into inlet ports of each of engine cylinders. The dosage of supply of fuel is carried out by management of time of opening of electromagnetic valves of injectors according to the amount of air forced in the engine defined by specific conditions of functioning. Duration of opening of injectors is defined by parameters formed the module of management (ECM) of electric impulses that allows to carry out very exact dosage of components of gas mixture.
ECM defines demanded duration of time of opening of injectors on the basis of the analysis of data continuously arriving from information sensors about amount of air soaked up in the engine - the termoanemometrichesky sensor of measurement of weight of air (MAF), the current turns of the engine - the sensor of provision of a cranked shaft (CKP), and the provision of butterfly valves - TPS.
Besides the listed functions the system of the distributed injection of fuel carries out also control of toxicity of the fulfilled gases, ratio optimization an expense fuel/efficiency of return of the engine, and also provides adequate starting parameters and engine warming up in cold weather, proceeding from data on temperatures cooling liquids (ECT sensor) and soaked-up air (IAT sensor).
System of supply of air
Inlet air path
The inlet air path consists of an air inlet, two rezonatorny chambers, assembly of an air purifier and connecting it with the throttle case an air line. The first resonator is located above an air purifier on a stream, by means of a by-pass hose is connected to a back part of an air inlet and effectively promotes decrease in level of the noise background arising at absorption of air in the engine. The second rezonatorny chamber is connected to an air line of an inlet air path directly ahead of the throttle case.
Design of an inlet air path of the petrol engine
Air banished through an air purifier arrives in the throttle case, from where, in defined by the provision of butterfly valves (TPS sensor) quantity, on the inlet pipeline moves to inlet ports of cylinders of the engine where mixes up with fuel injected through injectors, forming gas mixture. Stability of turns of idling is provided at the expense of a perepuskaniye of a part of air mass bypassing the throttle case directly in the inlet pipeline. Control of amount of restarted-up air is carried out by ECM by means of management of functioning of the special perepuskny valve of stabilization of turns of idling (IAC).
The sensor of temperature of soaked-up air (IAT)
The IAT sensor is established on assembly of an air purifier and serves for measurement of temperature of air soaked up in the engine. The termistor, which resistance is put in a basis of a design of the sensor in inverse proportion to temperature of a sensitive element. Parameters traced by the sensor will be transformed to electric signals and transferred to ECM exercising administration of configuration of an air and fuel mix, and also the injection and ignition moments.
Sensor of measurement of weight of air (MAF)
The Termoanemometrichesky MAF sensor is established in an inlet air path directly behind an air purifier and represents itself as the source of information delivering ECM data on amount of air soaked up in the engine. On the basis of the analysis of information of ECM arriving from the sensor carries out configuration of an air and fuel mix.
Placed in the case of a throttle of a zaslonka cope from a gas pedal according to which situation, to a greater or lesser extent block throttle openings through passage that allows to regulate an expense of combustion of the engine of air arriving in chambers. On single turns when the pedal of gas is completely released, zaslonka are blocked almost completely by a throttle and bulk of air (more than a half) arrives in the inlet pipeline via the special electromagnetic valve of stabilization of turns of idling (IAC) bypassing the throttle case. Use of the IAC valve allows to carry out also control of stability of turns of idling regardless of changes of the current load of the engine (for example, at turning on of the conditioner of air or other power-intensive consumers).
Design of the case of a throttle
Sensor of provision of butterfly valves (TPS)
TPS is established on the case of a throttle and is mechanically connected to an axis of butterfly valves. The sensor develops and sends ECM the alarm tension which size is directly proportional to extent of opening a zaslonok. To the closed and opened provisions a zaslonok there correspond accurately certain values of tension.
ECM is allocated with the mental abilities allowing it to compensate inevitable of times ые of change of performance data of the sensor at their binding to provision of a butterfly valve.
Electromagnetic valve of stabilization of turns of idling (IAC)
The IAC valve is switched on in an inlet air path ahead of the case of a throttle and exercises administration in size of a consumption of the air which is restarted up bypassing the last at operation of the engine on single turns. The valve works on ECM signals, allowing the last to support turns of idling of the engine at the set level.
IAC valve design
System of supply of fuel
Placed in a fuel tank pogruzhny the fuel pump provides supply of fuel under pressure to each of injectors of the fuel highway. Gasoline moves from the pump to injectors on a fuel path with the filter of thin cleaning switched on in it. The special regulator supports pressure of fuel in the highway at the set optimum level. Through injectors fuel in necessary quantity is injected directly into chambers of combustion of each of engine cylinders where mixes up with air and forms gas mixture. The amount of fuel and the moment of injection are calculated by the management module. Excess of fuel on the returnable line arrives back in a fuel tank.
Scheme of the organization of system of supply of fuel
The fuel tank made of stamped steel in volume of 60 l is established under the car, directly ahead of the back bridge under assembly of a back seat.
The tank is equipped with the filter protecting it from blows by stones, and fastens under the car bottom by means of five bolts.
The configuration of working volume of a tank is chosen so that the toplivozabornik of a gasoline pump remained in the shipped situation at any level of filling of a tank, even during sharp maneuvering.
The special unilateral valve preventing penetration of fuel from working volume of a tank back in a mouth at movement on off road terrain and sharp maneuvering is built in a jellied mouth of a tank.
Remember that correct (before operation of a graggers of a ratchet) the tightening of a cover of a jellied mouth is a guarantee of maintenance of demanded superfluous pressure in a fuel path.
Do not forget to exhaust from time to time the car on a platform and attentively to examine a fuel tank and the lines brought to it about identification of mechanical damages.
The fuel pump is incorporated in uniform assembly with the sensor of a stock of fuel. The pump has a rotor design and is placed in a fuel tank that allows in an essential measure to lower level made by it at work of a noise background.
Management of functioning of the fuel pump carries out ECM. At development by the module of management of the corresponding team there is an activation of the relay of the fuel pump then the electromotor starts to rotate, actuating a rotor of pump assembly. Sucked in via the mesh filter of a toplivozabornik fuel on connecting lines arrives to the fuel highway and under a pressure moves on injectors. The pumped pressure in a fuel path is supported at constant level by means of a special regulator. For the purpose of prevention of pressure drop of fuel at gasoline pump shutdown the special locking valve is switched on in pump assembly.
Excess of fuel on the returnable line is taken away back in a fuel tank.
Regulator of pressure of fuel
The regulator of pressure is established since the end of the line of giving of fuel brought to injectors and consists of two chambers divided by a diaphragm: fuel and spring. The fuel chamber is connected to the line of supply of fuel, spring - with the inlet pipeline. At increase in depth of depression in the inlet pipeline procrastination of a diaphragm leads to opening brought to the fuel chamber of a regulator of the returnable line, - as a result pressure in the fuel highway decreases. Decrease in depth of depression in the pipeline leads to a diaphragm otzhimaniye a spring and to increase in submitting pressure. The described mechanism allows to support a difference between pressure of injection and depression in the inlet pipeline at the constant level making 290 kPas.
In system of the distributed injection injectors with the top supply of fuel are used. The scheme of connection of injectors provides cooling them with a fuel stream. Injectors of such design differ in the compact sizes, the high thermal stability, the lowered noise background and simplicity in service.
Duration of opening of the electromagnetic needle valve of an injector is defined by length of developed ECM of an operating impulse. In view of that the section of a nozzle of an injector, size of opening of the valve and pressure of supply of fuel are supported by constants, the number of combustion of fuel injected into the chamber is defined only by duration of time of the opening corresponding to length of the operating impulse.
Sensor of a stock of fuel
The sensor is incorporated in uniform assembly with the fuel pump and consists of the float fixed on the lever and a potentiometer.
Change of level of fuel is traced by a potentiometer under the provision of the float, the corresponding indication is deduced on built in in a combination of devices a measuring instrument.
Connecting lines of a fuel path
Supply of fuel from a gasoline pump to the fuel highway and its return to a fuel tank is carried out on metal by tubes and to hoses of lines of giving and fuel return. Lines by means of clamps fasten to the car bottom. Also should be checked regularly on existence of mechanical damages.
Besides submitting and returnable gasoline pipe lines it is necessary to carry to number of connecting lines of a path of a power supply system also lines of branch of fuel evaporations on which accumulating in a fuel tank during parking of pair of fuel are taken away in a special coal adsorber located in an impellent compartment. When squeezing a pedal of gas after engine warming up to normal working temperature at the command of ECM the adsorber purge with a conclusion of the fuel which has accumulated in it in the inlet pipeline with its subsequent burning in a normal running cycle of the engine is carried out.
Filter of thin cleaning
The filter of thin cleaning is switched on in structure of the line of supply of fuel.
The case of the fuel filter is capable to maintain rather high temperature, vibrating and shock loadings. In the case the paper filtering element providing purification of fuel submitted to the fuel highway from extraneous particles, not caught by a grid of a toplivozabornik of a gasoline pump and capable to put out of action injectors is enclosed.
Recommendations about economy of fuel consumption
Essential influence on fuel consumption renders style of driving of the car. Given below the recommendation will allow the owner to achieve economy of fuel consumption when receiving adequate return from the engine.
- Try to avoid long warmings up of the engine, - begin movement at once as soon as turns are stabilized;
- At a car stop for a while more for 40 seconds suppress the engine;
- Always try to move on the highest transfer, avoiding sharp dispersals;
- On distant trips whenever possible try to move with uniform speed. Avoid movement on excessively high speeds. Operate the car circumspectly. Without need do not brake;
- Transport the car excessive cargo. If the top luggage carrier is not used, remove it from a roof;
- Regularly check pressure of a rating of tires, without allowing its excessive decrease.