The device and repair of Kia Sportage SUVs (KIA of Sportazh) - the General information-//kupit-derevo.ru
KIA of Sportazh - Kia Sportage
Governing bodies and operation receptions
Current leaving and service
Engine
Systems of cooling, heating, ventilation and air conditioning
Power supply systems, managements of engine/decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases and production of the fulfilled gases
Systems of electric equipment of the engine
Five-step manual box of gear shifting
Automatic transmission
   General information
   Search of malfunctions - the general information
   Reading of the DTC codes, cleaning of memory of the processor
   Checks and adjustments of components of a control system of AT
   Checks and adjustments of a mekhaniko-hydraulic part
   Check and adjustment of a driving cable of AT
   Removal and installation of the lever of the AT selector
   Removal and AT installation
Transmission line
Brake system
Suspension bracket and steering
Body
Onboard electric equipment
Control body sizes
Schemes of electric connections



Kia Sportage>> Automatic transmission>> General information

General information

More detailed information on a design, principles of functioning and service of a design of AW can be found in the Management 179 («Automatic transmissions of modern cars») ARUS publishing houses.

Design of typical AT (1 of 2)

1 — Gidrotransformator
2 — the Entrance shaft of O/D
3 — the Oil pump
4 — the Disk brake of O/D
5 — O/D Friction clutch
6 — the Entrance shaft of a friction clutch of forward transfers
7 — the Friction clutch of forward transfers
8 — the Friction clutch of direct perception
9 — Obgonnaya the O/D coupling

10 — the Disk brake of a mode "2"
11 — the Disk brake of transfers from the 2nd and above
12 — the Disk brake of modes "L" and "R"
13 — a Forward number of back planetary assembly
14 — the Back row of back planetary assembly
15 — Forward planetary assembly (O/D)
16 — Obgonnaya the coupling No. 1
17 — Obgonnaya the coupling No. 2

Design of typical AT (2 of 2)

1 — Obgonnaya the O/D coupling
2 — O/D Friction clutch
3 — the Satellite of forward planetary assembly
4 — the Disk brake of O/D
5 — the Friction clutch of forward transfers
6 — the Friction clutch of direct perception
7 — the Disk brake of a mode "2"
8 — Obgonnaya the coupling No. 1
9 — the Disk brake of transfers from the 2nd and above
10 — the Disk brake of modes "L" and "R"
11 — Obgonnaya the coupling No. 2
12 — the Orbital gear wheel of a forward number of back planetary assembly

13 — the Orbital gear wheel of a back row of back planetary assembly
14 — the Target shaft
15 — the Satellite of a back row of back planetary assembly
16 — the Solar gear wheel of back planetary assembly
17 — the Satellite of a forward number of back planetary assembly
18 — the Intermediate shaft
19 — the Entrance shaft of a friction clutch of forward transfers
20 — the Solar gear wheel of O/D
21 — the Entrance (primary) shaft of O/D

For a complete set of cars considered in the real Management can be used 4-step (including raising transfer) automatic transmissions (AT) of a series 03-72LE of production of the Aisin Warner company (AW372LE).

Playing a role of ordinary coupling at the moment of a car troganiye from a place, during movement AT performs work on gear shifting.

The AT main components are the being blocked hydrotransformer (the rotation converter), a three-row step planetary reducer and an electronic and hydraulic control system. Hydrodriving multidisk brakes (4 pieces), obgonny couplings (3 pieces) and multidisk friction clutches (3 pieces) are applied to gear shifting without a rupture of a stream of capacity in a planetary reducer.

Management of switching of all transfers, and also blocking of the hydrotransformer carries out the special electronic module (TCM) which is working in close connection with the module of engine management (ECM) and continuously communicating with last.

Possibility of blocking of the hydrotransformer at movement in a cruiser mode about the speed, exceeding some threshold value allows to increase essentially profitability of fuel consumption at the expense of decrease in working turns of the engine.

The liquid cooler of ATF is built in a radiator of system of cooling of the engine, one more, an external air cooler is established directly ahead of a radiator of system of cooling.

TCM supervises functioning of all AT executive mechanisms (klapanny assembly, couplings, brake assemblies) taking into account a choice of one of three set modes of transmission: ECONO (a normal mode), POWER or HOLD, - see. Head Governing bodies and operation receptions). On the basis of the analysis of the data arriving from various information sensors (not necessarily directly related to functioning actually transmissions), TCM chooses optimum from the point of view of profitability, smoothness of switchings and so forth a mode of functioning of AT. A component of a control system of AT is the self-diagnostics subsystem, - at detection of serious malfunction the module of management switches transmission in a special emergency (safe) operation with a limited range of switchings. Switching in emergency operation allows to drive away the car under the own steam on car repair shop for performance of detailed diagnostics and necessary regenerative repair. On the basis of the data arriving from gas traditionally established under a pedal of the sensor switch of activation of the mode kickdown, TCM carries out transmission switching on adjacent being used at the moment transfer at complete squeezing of a pedal that allows to raise essentially dynamic characteristics of the car, for example during overtaking commission. Thanks to use of the special N/R sensor switch start of the engine can be carried out only when the lever of the AT selector is in the situation "R" or "N" that allows to prevent a casual troganiye of the car in start attempt.

The unique procedure of service of AT which performance should be made on a regular basis, check of level of the working liquid (ATF) which order of performance is stated in Head the Current leaving and service is. Need for regular replacement of ATF is absent.

In the present chapter the general procedures of service AT lying within qualification of the average amateur mechanic are considered only most. Information on a design and principles of functioning of the AT separate executive elements below is provided.

Klapanny assembly

Klapanny assembly is located in the pallet of a case of transmission and under control of TCM exercises administration of ATF streams in a box. A part assemblies liquids supervising pressure valves are connected among themselves by internal channels. Cleaning taken away of the pallet of a case of transmission liquid (ATF) is provided with the mesh filter which has been built in in a maslozabornik of pump assembly.

Design of klapanny assembly of AT

1 — the Valve of activation of the kickdown mode
2 — the Valve of switching 3-4
3 — the Secondary valve regulator
4 — Dempferny the valve of transfer of a backing
5 — the Valve of switching 2-3
6 — the Valve of switching 1-2
7 — Reduktsionny the valve
8 — the Throttle valve
9 — the Locking valve of restriction of throttle pressure

10 — the Valve of manual switching
11 — the Electromagnetic valve switch A
12 — the Electromagnetic valve of the blocking coupling of the hydrotransformer
13 — the mode "L" Valve modulator
14 — the Electromagnetic valve switch B
15 — the Primary valve regulator
16 — the Operating valve of the hydrotransformer
17 — the Intermediate valve modulator

Hydroaccumulators

The main function of the accumulator is ensuring absence of stress of switchings of transmission towards transfer increase at the expense of smoothing of operation of friction clutches. In considered transmission three relatives on an accumulator design are used: friction clutches of forward transfers and direct perception and a disk brake of transfers from the 2nd and above.

The accumulator consists of the valve and a spring. To the podpruzhinenny party of the valve the main pressure, whose action плюсуется is constantly attached to effort developed by a spring and presses the valve when assembly is in an inactive condition.

Accumulator design

1 — the Working party
2 — To the internal piston of an under control component

3 — the Main pressure (from the valve of manual switching)
4 — the antipressure Party
5 — the Main pressure

When giving operating pressure upon the corresponding executive mechanism (a friction clutch or a multidisk brake) the same pressure (from the valve of manual switching) is put to the working party of the valve of the corresponding accumulator. Under the influence of this pressure the valve starts to be wrung out down, overcoming antipressure and the effort developed by a spring. On filling of working volume the accumulator needs some time by the time of which end the executive mechanism appears completely included, - this delay and provides smoothness of operation of an under control friction clutch/brake and, respectively, absence of stress of switching of AT.

Hydrotransformer blocking

The blocking coupling provides possibility of transfer of a torque from a cranked shaft of the engine to directly entrance shaft of O/D of transmission.

Operation of blocking occurs only in a cruiser mode at movement with a speed over 69 km/h (43 miles/h) and at temperature of cooling liquid not less 50°С. At delay of speed of movement is lower than a threshold of inclusion of raising (O/D) of transfer (69 km/h), no less than at decrease in temperature of cooling liquid is lower 50°С, the blocking coupling automatically is disconnected.

Blocking inclusion

At delivery by the module of management (TCM) of the corresponding team during car movement on 2nd, 3rd or 4th (O/D) to transfer operation of the electromagnetic valve of the blocking coupling leads to opening of drainage channels and, as a result, dumping of the main pressure from the spring party of the operating zolotnikovy valve of the hydrotransformer. Under the influence of the main pressure (from the valve of switching 1-2), a zolotnik brought from the opposite side, there is its switching to supply of the transmission liquid which was under the pressure of the hydrotransformer via the turbine on the back party of the blocking coupling, - forced out from the opposite side of the ATF coupling via the operating valve is deduced in the case pallet (the stream of the transmission liquid banished through a cooler of ATF, at the included blocking of the hydrotransformer is reduced). As a result blocking coupling nestles on a forward cover, mechanically with it being blocked. As the coupling has shlitsevy landing on the turbine, from this point a forward cover, the coupling and the turbine start to rotate as a unit, providing torque transfer from a cranked shaft of the engine directly on an entrance shaft of O/D of transmission.

Coupling equipment by dempferny springs allows to lower level of noise and the vibrations made by the transmission line.

Principle of inclusion of blocking of the hydrotransformer

And — Dumping
In — the Main pressure
With — Pressure of the hydrotransformer
D — Dumping
Е — the Main pressure (from the valve of switching 1-2)
F — the Operating valve of the hydrotransformer
G — To ATF cooler

N — Ø/m the valve blocking couplings (Vkl)
1 — the Forward cover
2 — the Turbine
3 — the Pump
4 — the Blocking coupling
5 — Springs
6 — the Cover
7 — the Working element of a zolotnik No. 3
8 — the Working element of a zolotnik No. 2

Blocking shutdown

At delivery by the module of management (TCM) of command for shutdown of blocking there is a closing of the electromagnetic valve under the influence of effort developed by its spring. As a result of a perekryvaniye of drainage channels and pressure alignment from both parties of the operating valve of the hydrotransformer, the last under the influence of effort developed by a spring is switched, providing giving being under the pressure of the ATF hydrotransformer on the forward party of the blocking coupling. As a result blocking coupling is wrung out from a forward cover, deducing the last from gearing with the block the coupling turbine, - surplus of volume of the liquid being under the pressure of the hydrotransformer, is deduced via the operating valve in a cooler of ATF and further in the case pallet.

Principle of shutdown of blocking of the hydrotransformer

And — Dumping
In — the Main pressure
With — Pressure of the hydrotransformer
D — Dumping
Е — the Main pressure (from the valve of switching 1-2)
F — the Operating valve of the hydrotransformer

G — To ATF cooler
N — Ø/m the valve blocking couplings (Vkl)
1 — the Forward cover
2 — the Turbine
3 — the Pump
4 — the Blocking coupling
5 — Springs
6 — the Cover

ATF cooler

At the switched-off blocking of the hydrotransformer transmission generates a large number of heat which main part accumulates transmission liquid.

For heat selection from ATF the special two-level okhladitelny path is organized. The first step of cooling is organized by means of laying of tubes of a transmission contour in the bottom tank of a radiator of system of cooling. After return of a part of heat of cooling liquid of the engine in a radiator of system of cooling, ATF goes in a maslookhladitel. The heat exchanger of a cooler of ATF is established ahead of a radiator of system of cooling and is blown by a running stream of air which selects the remained superfluous heat at ATF. Pressure of ATF is supported at constant level in 1.9 atm at the expense of inclusion to the okhladitelny highway of transmission of the special perepuskny valve.

The main source of a thermal emission in AT is the hydrotransformer. As at inclusion of blocking of the hydrotransformer turbulence of a stream of ATF in it decreases, the capacity of a thermal emission of transmission is considerably reduced also. Taking into account this factor, in a design of AT function of reduction of a stream of transmission liquid through ATF cooler for the period of turning on of the blocking coupling is put. If there is an overheat, TCM develops special command for shutdown of blocking of the hydrotransformer for the purpose of restoration of intensity of circulation of ATF via the cooler heat exchanger.

Purpose of the AT separate executive elements

Card of operation of the AT actuation mechanisms

The card is presented in the table.

Device
Mode

Ø/m C. And

Ø/m C. In

O/D friction clutch

Friction clutch of forward transfers

R

R

N

D

1st transfer

2nd transfer

3rd transfer

O/D
2 1st transfer
2nd transfer
L 1st transfer

Device
Mode

Friction clutch of direct perception

O/D brake

Mode "2" brake

Brake of transfers from the 2nd and above

R

R

N

D

1st transfer

2nd transfer

3rd transfer

O/D
2 1st transfer
2nd transfer
L 1st transfer

Device
Mode

Brake of modes "L" and "R"

Обг. O/D coupling

Обг. coupling No. 1

Обг. coupling No. 2
Vnutr. piston Plank beds. piston

R

R

N

D

1st transfer

2nd transfer

3rd transfer

O/D
2 1st transfer
2nd transfer
L 1st transfer

Friction clutches

General information

Friction clutches consist of the set of ring plates placed in the case and frictional disks and the executive piston (it).

Plates are made of steel, have smooth surfaces and are equipped with shlitsa evenly placed on external edge; frictional disks represent thin metal rings with the frictional slips pasted from both parties and non-uniformly oshlitsovanny internal edge. Plates and disks take place in the friction clutch case through one.

At the released piston frictional disks rotate in the assembly case freely, and gaps between them and ring plates are filled with transmission liquid. When giving on the piston of pressure of a plate densely nestle on disks, forming the monolithic block. ATF is forced out from gaps and under the influence of centrifugal force through specially provided in the friction clutch case channels is taken away in the pallet of a case of AT. Otpuskaniye of the piston at removal of pressure occurs under the influence of returnable springs.

1 — the Ring plate
2 — the Frictional disk
3 — the Returnable spring
4 — the Piston
5 — the Case

Friction clutch of raising transfer (O/D)

Provides blocking of a solar gear wheel with the holder of satellites (vodily) forward planetary assembly.

The friction clutch is involved in all AT modes on all transfers, except raising and, at the expense of blocking of planetary assembly, provides torque transfer from an entrance shaft of O/D in transmission assembly. Special, built in in the executive piston of a friction clutch, a control ball provides pressure deduction in the included condition and its dumping at shutdown. The thin lock ring is used for fixing of all except one disks of the friction clutch, the second lock ring fixes a nave of a disk brake of O/D.

Friction clutch of forward transfers

Provides a joint of the entrance shaft with intermediate shaft of transmission.

The friction clutch is involved in all AT modes on all transfers of a forward course and, through the nave, provides torque transfer to the intermediate shaft jointed with vodily of back planetary assembly. Special, built in in the executive piston of a friction clutch, a control ball provides pressure deduction in the included condition and its dumping at shutdown. The thin lock ring is used for fixing of all except one disks of the friction clutch, the second lock ring fixes a nave of a friction clutch of the direct perception, rotating thus together with the case of a friction clutch of forward transfers.

Friction clutch of direct perception

Provides a joint of an entrance shaft of a friction clutch of forward transfers with a solar gear wheel.

The friction clutch is involved on a reverse gear, and also on the 3rd and 4th transfers in the R and D modes respectively and provides torque transfer from the nave to a solar gear wheel of back planetary assembly. The nave of a friction clutch of direct perception rotates together with the case of a friction clutch of forward transfers, thus, at simultaneous activation of both friction clutches direct (direct) transfer of a torque is provided. When the friction clutch of direct perception is involved only, the case of a friction clutch of forward transfers continues to rotate, without transferring thus a torque to an intermediate shaft. Special, built in in the executive piston of a friction clutch, a control ball provides pressure deduction in the included condition and its dumping at shutdown.

Disk brake assemblies

The design of multidisk brake assemblies is similar to a design of friction clutches.

Disk brake of raising transfer (O/D)

Blocks rotation of a solar gear wheel of forward planetary assembly.

Brake disks (have internal gearing) are planted on a shlitsa of a nave, a plate (have external gearing) jointed by shlitsa with pribolchenny to AT case the case of brake assembly. The nave of a brake is connected directly to a solar gear wheel of forward planetary assembly and at inclusion of the 4th transfer in a mode "D" of transmission is blocked with the case of brake assembly. Special, built in in the executive piston of brake assembly, a control ball provides pressure deduction in the included condition and its dumping at shutdown. One lock ring is used for fixing of the spring holder, the second lock ring fixes working disks and plates.

Disk brake of a mode "2"

Blocks rotation of a solar gear wheel of back planetary assembly.

The brake is used for ensuring braking with the engine at transfer of transmission to a mode "2". Disks of a brake are planted on a shlitsa of the case of a friction clutch of direct perception, plates are jointed by shlitsa with the case of the central support, in turn pribolchenny to a transmission case. At activation of a brake the nave of a friction clutch of the direct perception, having shlitsevy landing on a solar gear wheel of back planetary assembly is blocked. Special, built in in the executive piston of brake assembly, a control ball provides pressure deduction in the included condition and its dumping at shutdown.

Disk brake of transfers from the 2nd and above

Blocks an external holder of the obgonny coupling No. 1, preventing thereby rotation of a solar gear wheel counter-clockwise.

Disks of a brake are planted on a shlitsa of a nave, plates are jointed by shlitsa with the case of the central support, in turn pribolchenny to a transmission case. The brake is involved in transmission modes "D" and "2" at movement on 2nd, 3rd and 4th (O/D) transfers and its nave at the same time is an external holder for the obgonny coupling No. 1. Special, built in in the executive piston of brake assembly, a control ball provides pressure deduction in the included condition and its dumping at shutdown.

Disk brake of modes "L" and "R"

The holder of satellites blocks (drove) a forward number of back planetary assembly.

Brake assembly has a two-piston design and is located in a back part of a case of AT. Disks of a brake are planted on a shlitsa of the case of the holder of satellites (drove) a forward planetary row, plates are jointed by shlitsa with a transmission case. In modes "L" and "R" AT the brake provides blocking drove a forward planetary row, and in both cases both pistons are used. Special, built in in executive pistons of brake assembly, control balls provide pressure deduction in the included condition and its dumping at shutdown.

Obgonnye of the coupling

Obgonny O/D coupling

Serves for a joint of a solar gear wheel with vodily in forward (O/D) to planetary assembly and prevention of their rotation counter-clockwise.

The external holder of the coupling is a part drove, internal - a part of a solar gear wheel of forward planetary assembly.

When the solar gear wheel perceives a torque from the involved friction clutch of O/D, the coupling provides gearing of components with rotation transfer from the hydrotransformer turbine directly to an entrance shaft of a friction clutch of forward transfers.

At inclusion of the 4th transfer the friction clutch of O/D is switched off and the disk brake of raising transfer is activated. Thus the case of a friction clutch and a solar gear wheel of forward (O/D) of planetary assembly are blocked, and the torque of the engine starts to be transferred rotating round a solar gear wheel clockwise водилу, thus locks of the obgonny coupling are uncoupled, providing freedom of a course drove.

Obgonny coupling No. 1

Serves for prevention of rotation of a solar gear wheel of a planetary row counter-clockwise during operation of a disk brake by the 2nd and above transfers at movement in an AT mode "D".

The external holder of the coupling is a part of a nave of brake assembly of the 2nd and above transfers, internal - a part of a solar gear wheel of a planetary row.

At the disconnected brake the solar gear wheel rotates counter-clockwise as on the 1st and back transfers and locks of the coupling are uncoupled.

Activation of a disk brake by the 2nd and above transfers leads to deduction of an external holder of the coupling (a brake nave), rotation of a solar gear wheel counter-clockwise stops in view of its blocking with a brake nave at the expense of operation of locks of the obgonny coupling.

Obgonny coupling No. 2

Blocks rotation counter-clockwise the holder of satellites (drove) a forward number of back planetary assembly.

The coupling will be involved only on the first transfer in AT modes "D" and "2", mainly in need of fast acceleration.

The external holder of the coupling is a part drove a forward number of back planetary assembly, internal - a part of a basic (jet) plate of a disk brake of modes "L" and "R".

At a start of motion the friction clutch of forward transfers provides a drive of an orbital gear wheel of a back row of planetary assembly that forces a solar gear wheel to rotate counter-clockwise. The perception of this rotation vodily a forward planetary row is blocked by locks of the obgonny coupling. As a result, the torque is transferred to a target shaft of transmission only by means of an orbital gear wheel of a forward row.

At movement on any other transfer of a forward course the solar gear wheel rotates counter-clockwise and locks of the obgonny coupling remain uncoupled. At sharp acceleration drove a forward row rotates clockwise, perceiving a torque from a target shaft, also providing unhooking of locks of the coupling. The factor of braking is thus eliminated with the engine.

At movement in a mode "L" the brake of modes "L" and "R" blocks rotation drove a forward planetary row, and even gearing of the obgonny coupling No. 2 does not lead to inclusion of braking by the engine.

Planetary reducer

In case of need address to materials stated in the previous subsections.

Forward planetary assembly (O/D)

Single-row planetary assembly of O/D consists of a solar gear wheel, a set fixed in the holder (drove) satellites and an orbital gear wheel.

The entrance shaft of O/D constantly rotates clockwise, perceiving a torque from the turbine of the hydrotransformer jointed with vodily of planetary assembly. The drive of a solar gear wheel is carried out by the friction clutch of O/D involved in all modes and on all transfers, except the raising.

From an entrance shaft rotation is transferred to satellites of planetary assembly, forcing them to rotate counter-clockwise. Friction clutches of O/D and forward transfers are connected to driving wheels of the car. The external holder of the obgonny O/D coupling rotates clockwise, perceiving a torque from drove planetary assembly of raising transfer. Resistance of a solar gear wheel and the effort, developed vodily, leads to blocking of locks of the obgonny coupling and, as a result, a joint of these components with each other, the monolithic block «a solar gear wheel is as a result formed - drove - an entrance shaft». At rotation of a solar gear wheel with entrance shaft satellites are blocked in an orbital gear wheel that leads to torque transfer to an entrance gear wheel of a friction clutch of forward transfers.

In need of inclusion of raising transfer the friction clutch of O/D is released and the disk brake of raising transfer blocking a solar gear wheel round which starts to rotate will be involved drove, O/D untwisted by entrance shaft. Satellites are compelled to run all over a solar gear wheel, forcing an orbital gear wheel to rotate with bigger, than own (satellites) in the angular speed. As a result of operation of the described scheme the transfer relation of raising transfer (0.730 is formed: 1).

Back planetary assembly

In considered AT (AW372LE) back planetary assembly of a design Simpson consisting of two planetary ranks (satellites in drove also an orbital gear wheel), planted on the general solar gear wheel is used.

The solar gear wheel is planted on a shlitsa of a nave of a friction clutch of direct perception. Drove a forward planetary row by means of шлицов it is jointed with brake assembly of modes "L" and "R" and the obgonny coupling No. 1. The orbital gear wheel of a back planetary row is given in rotation by a friction clutch of forward transfers. Back drove also an orbital gear wheel of a forward row, have shlitsevy landing on day off to a shaft.

The demanded transfer relation is reached at the expense of a combination of blocking of components of a reducer.

Mechanism of parking blocking

The external surface of an orbital gear wheel of a forward planetary row has gear structure, - at transfer of the lever of the selector to the situation "R" the special rod equipped with a cam provides deployment of the blocking lever with input of its working ledge in gearing with teeths on an external surface of a gear wheel that leads to blocking of a target shaft of transmission. In any other position of the lever of the selector the target shaft remains free.

1 — the Orbital gear wheel of a forward number of back planetary assembly
2 — the Cam
3 — the Blocking lever

Pump station

The hydraulic pressure used at management of functioning of AT is forced in system by special pump station. Though the rotor of the converter of rotation can be considered as some kind of pump, generated by it the stream of hydraulic liquid is consumed exclusively actually by the hydrotransformer, without taking part in any way in functioning of other components of transmission. Liquid arrives on an entrance of the converter and is issued from it not at the expense of functioning of own pump (rotor), and being forced by the special oil pump.

From an exit of the oil pump ATF arrives in the special regulator which is responsible for maintenance of working pressure in a path at constant level. Control of functioning of transmission is carried out by means of various hydraulic lines. On a case of AT some gates, allowing to make pressure measurements in lines for the purpose of check of serviceability of functioning of transmission in various conditions are provided. Thus it is worth to remember that pressure in all these control lines is forced only by the AT pump station.

On considered models the volume oil pump of the shesterenchaty type which drive is carried out directly from a nave of the converter of rotation on which shlitsa the leading gear wheel of pump assembly is planted is used.

1 — the Epiploon
2 — the Case
3 — the Sealing ring
4 — the Conducted gear wheel
5 — the Leading gear wheel
6 — a stator Support
7 — the Holder of No. of 1 persistent bearing
8 — Rings
9 — the Holder No. 2 of the persistent bearing
10 — the Holder No. 3 of the persistent bearing

The functioning principle transmission pump stations is in detail considered in the Management 179 («Automatic transmissions of modern cars») ARUS publishing houses.